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What is tension? Why does blood pressure rise or fall? High and Low Blood Pressure Symptoms

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26% of the adult population in the world has hypertension. Studies conducted in Turkey show that approximately 32% of the population has hypertension. This rate is around 36% for women and 27.5 percent for men. The prevalence of hypertension also tends to increase with age.


Blood pressure measurement, which is the easiest way to explain blood pressure, is popularly referred to in two forms as small and large. The diastolic blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the vessel wall after the contraction of the heart is over. Hypertension is the pressure that builds up in the arteries when the heart beats.

‘Blood pressure refers to the pressure exerted on the veins by the blood pumped by the heart. The words systolic and diastolic are used to measure this pressure. Hypertension is the pressure exerted by the blood pumped by the heart at the time of contraction, and diastolic pressure is the blood pressure in the vessels at the time of relaxation of the heart. The usual blood pressure measurements are 120 for systolic blood pressure and 80 for diastolic blood pressure. If the systolic blood pressure is 140 or more and the diastolic blood pressure is 90 and above, it can be said to be high blood pressure. If the systolic blood pressure is 100 or less and the diastolic blood pressure is 60 or less, it means low blood pressure.


systolic blood pressure between 90 mmHg and 120 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure should be in the middle of 60-90 mmHg. If the blood pressure is below 90/60 mmHg, it is called low blood pressure. Low blood pressure, which is called hypotension, can be due to some physical reasons or it can be caused by birth.


Those with low blood pressure may experience symptoms such as dizziness, fatigue, drowsiness, poor concentration, tingling in the eyes when standing up. Insufficient functioning of the adrenal glands, weak heart muscles or the use of certain medications can cause low blood pressure. Low blood pressure patients may complain of symptoms. However, in some cases, patients may not feel these symptoms.


Those with low blood pressure are advised to avoid long-term physical activities. People with low blood pressure should not stand for long periods of time and should drink plenty of fluids.

Offers for those with low blood pressure:

• Plenty of fluids should be taken,

• There should be enough salt in the nutrition list,

• Too many carbohydrates should be avoided,

• The daily supports given by the physician should definitely be used,

• Too much caffeine intake should be avoided,

• Alcohol should not be consumed.


Hypertension is defined as systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mmHg (14 cmHg) and/or diastolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg (9 cmHg). While measuring blood pressure, not smoking, drinking tea or coffee half an hour before, taking the measurement after resting for five to ten minutes in a quiet room, using a blood pressure device of appropriate width and length (in standard conditions, at least 80 percent of the arm circumference, 35 cm long and 12-13 cm wide), the arm is completely bare, the sphygmomanometer is kept at heart level, it is left for 1-2 minutes in the middle of two measurements, it is taken from both arms in the first measurement (whichever is higher is accepted), and In the elderly and diabetic patients, blood pressure should be measured while sitting and standing. In addition, it is valuable to measure at least twice for real diagnosis.


In about 90-95% of patients with high blood pressure, no cause can be found. However, 5-10% of the patients may develop high blood pressure due to some diseases such as kidney disease, hormonal diseases, congenital stenosis of the aorta, medications and cessation of breathing during sleep. Since this type of hypertension is less responsive to drug therapy, diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disease is essential. When the underlying disease is treated, high blood pressure can regress or it can be easier to control high blood pressure. Uncomplicated high blood pressure does not show symptoms more than once. High blood pressure is also called the “silent killer” because it progresses insidiously without symptoms and can sometimes be diagnosed when it causes complications. symptoms of high blood pressure; We can summarize it as headache, tinnitus, dizziness, drowsiness, nosebleeds, loss of concentration, especially in the morning, felt in the neck and back of the head.


Treatment of high blood pressure is divided into two main clusters as lifestyle changes and drug therapy. Lifestyle needs to be changed to prevent hypertension. Not smoking, maintaining ideal weight, physical training, avoiding excessive alcohol and salt consumption, consuming foods that are stronger than fruits and vegetables, and low in red meat and saturated fats are valuable.

1. Train systematically:

Get at least 30 minutes of moderate-paced aerobic exercise, such as walking at a moderate pace, 5 days a week. If you can increase the training time to 1 hour and increase the intensity (such as fast paced walking or jogging), it will be sufficient to do sports 3 days a week. Although it is thought that the most adequate training hours in terms of the biorhythm of the human body are in the afternoon and evening, it is valuable to train whenever you can. You just take the time to do it. Heavy training is not recommended in the first 1.5 hours after refeeding due to heavy digestive activities.

2. Reach your ideal weight:

Losing excess weight will lower your blood pressure and protect you from the risk of diabetes and heart disease. Even 5-10 kilos loss can cause a significant decrease in blood pressure. Studies show that the most effective measure to reduce blood pressure in the short term is weight loss, and the effects of salt restriction and training appear in the medium and long term.

3. Eat healthy:

Prefer a diet that is low animal fats, low in carbohydrates, strong in protein, and consists of plenty of vegetables and fruits. Avoid foods and beverages with added sugar. Another point you should pay attention to is to end the daily salt consumption with 6 grams per day.

4. Quit smoking:

According to the researches; blood pressure rises during and after smoking. Do not forget that smoking is one of the valuable factors that lead to cardiovascular diseases at the same time.

5. Limit alcohol measure:

Regular and higher amounts of alcohol, in addition to raising blood pressure, also increase the risk of developing diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, liver cirrhosis and cancer. For drinks such as wine, the daily measure should not exceed 2 glasses if you are a man and 1 glass if you are a woman.

6. Don’t be a prisoner of tension:

Stress triggers eating disorders, increases the tendency to use cigarettes and alcohol, can reduce the level of movement, thus increasing the trend to high blood pressure. If you cannot protect yourself from the negative effects of tension, you can seek help from health professionals, such as psychologists.

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