The monkeypox virus (Monkeypox) epidemic, which emerged as the world continued to struggle with the Covid-19 epidemic, began to spread in Europe. The disease caused alarm all over the world. Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Specialist Nagihan Demir gave information about monkeypox and its way of transmission and gave warnings.
Dr. Demir said, “Monkeypox (Monkeypox virus) is a double-stranded zoonotic DNA virus that causes monkeypox in humans and other animals, belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus in the family Poxviridae. Variola is one of the human orthopox viruses, which includes cowpox and vaccinia viruses. The virus is mainly found in the tropical forests of Central Africa and West Africa. I
– Monkeypox virus, which was first seen as a smallpox-like disease in laboratory monkeys in 1958, was first seen in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1970. Since the date of the speech, monkeypox virus cases have been reported in humans in other Central and West African countries. The virus can be transmitted both from animal to human and from human to human.
– Animal-to-human transmission can occur through an animal bite or direct contact with the bodily fluids of an infected animal. Monkeypox virus is transmitted from one person to another through contact with contaminated items such as lesions, bodily fluids, respiratory droplets and bedding. Eating undercooked meat and other animal artifacts from infected animals is a risk factor. The disease can also be transmitted from mother to baby through the placenta. Monkeypox is spread primarily through close contact with infectious humans.
– Prior to the 2022 epidemic, monkeypox was not considered a sexually transmitted infection (STI). However, the rapid spread of the virus in the middle of sexual partners in the first stages of the epidemic suggests that sexual intercourse may be another way of transmission, but now it is not certain whether it is an STI or not.
SYMPTOMS OF THE DISEASE
Stating that the incubation period of the disease changes in the middle of 10 to 14 days, Dr. Demir, ‘Infection can be divided into two periods. The invasion period, characterized by fever, severe headache, lymphadenopathy (swelling of the lymph nodes), back pain, muscle aches and severe weakness, lasts from 0-5 days. Lymphadenopathy is a hallmark of the monkeypox virus event compared to other diseases that may initially appear exemplary (chickenpox, measles, smallpox). The skin rash usually begins 1-3 days after the onset of fever.
– The rash tends to be more on the face and arms and legs than on the trunk. The rashes usually start on the face (95 percent of cases) and affect the palms and soles (75 percent of cases). In addition, the oral mucosa (70% of cases), the genital area (30%) and the cornea (20%) are affected, along with the conjunctiva. The rash varies in succession from macules (flat-bottomed lesions) to papules (slightly raised firm lesions), vesicles (clear fluid-filled lesions), pustules (yellowish fluid-filled lesions), and crusts that slough off.
Monkeypox is a self-limiting disease with symptoms that usually last 2 to 4 weeks. Severe events occur more frequently in the middle of children. The monkeypox virus case fatality rate ranges from 0 to 11 percent in the general population and is higher in the middle of young children. In diagnosis, polymerase chain response (PCR) is the laboratory test of choice given its accuracy and sensitivity.
Stating that there is no proven, reliable treatment for monkeypox virus infection yet, Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Specialist Dr. Nagihan Demir said, “In order to keep the monkeypox epidemic under control, smallpox vaccine, antivirals and Intravenous immune globulin (VIG) can be used. However, at present, the original (first generation) smallpox vaccines are no longer available to the public. “A newer vaccine was approved in 2019 for the prevention of smallpox and monkey disease, but is now not widely available in the public domain.”
FIRST DETECTION OF THE DISEASE
On 6 May 2022, an ongoing monkeypox outbreak was confirmed in the United Kingdom with a British patient who had traveled to Nigeria, where the disease is endemic, and while there showed symptoms consistent withpox on 29 April 2022. Subsequently, virus events were reported outside the UK. 23 in Portugal, 1 in Sweden, 1 in Italy, 3 in Belgium, 2 in the United States, as of 21 May 2022, one in the Netherlands, seven in Canada, 31 in Spain, 31 in Germany 3 incidents were reported in Israel , 2 in Australia and 1 in Switzerland.