Breaking news! Mikhail Gorbachev, the last leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), died at the age of 91.
In the statement made by the Central Clinical Hospital of the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation, it was mentioned that 91-year-old Gorbachev died in the evening after a serious and long illness.
From 1985 to 1991, Gorbachev was general secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the highest governing body of the USSR.
With the reforms made in 1990, the presidential system was introduced. Gorbachev was elected State Leader of the USSR in a vote in the Supreme Soviet Assembly. Gorbachev was president of the USSR from 1990 to 1991.
The reform efforts he initiated, called perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness), ended the Cold War, but the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ended in the country.
The USSR officially disintegrated when Gorbachev left the mission on December 25, 1991.
Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 for his valuable role in ending the Cold War.
“THAT’S WHAT HAPPENED IN USSR WAS MY DRAMA”
Asked whether he held himself responsible for the collapse of the USSR, Gorbachev said, “What really upsets me is that the people in Russia did not understand enough what I set out to achieve and what I did. Perestroika (restructuring the economic and political system) ), work for the country and the world. “I am sorry that I did not see the end of the road. What happened in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was my drama. It was a drama for everyone living in the Soviet Union.
WHO IS MIHAIL GORBAÇOV?
Taking sides in world politics, Mikhail Gorbachev was born on March 2, 1931 in a village in the south of Russia.
It was here that he crossed paths with Gorbachev’s wife, Raisa, who studied law at Moscow State University.
After completing his education, he returned to his native village with his wife and started working in the prosecutor’s office. But his mind was always in politics.
He was a candidate for Communist Party membership in high school. He was accepted as a full member of the party at the university. He settled in Moscow in 1978 and began to climb the party ladder rapidly. He was the youngest member of the Politburo in 1980.
Reinforcing his success in politics in 1985, Gorbachev was elected as the General Secretary of the Communist Party after the death of three consecutive senior members.
Gorbachev, who took the leadership seat, took action to consolidate his power within the party and to revive the Soviet Union again.
GLASNOST AND PERESTROYKA
It is aimed to transform Stalin’s Soviet regime into a more contemporary social democracy. He had two plans for this; Glasnost (openness/transparency) and Perestroika (restructuring).
Within the framework of glasnost, that is, the policy of openness, cultural reforms were made. Freedom of speech and press was expanded. Gorbachev sought ways to democratize the Soviet political system. A number of mechanisms were implemented for the transition to a limited free market economy.
Gorbachev also established warm ties with Western countries. He held a series of meetings with then-US Leader Ronald Reagan. In 1987, the two leaders signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Weapons Agreement to reduce nuclear weapons.
In 1989, Gorbachev made a historic decision to withdraw Soviet troops from Afghanistan. It has brought the relations between the West and the middle of the country even closer.
Mikhail Gorbachev played a critical role in ending the cold war and the fall of the Berlin Wall. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 for his successful leadership and contribution to the development of the world.
NEW COMPETITOR YELTSİN
Inspired by the Glasnost policy, some Warsaw Pact members and Soviet republics began to voice their independence for independence.
Faced with a new challenge besides the risk of fragmentation and significant difficulties in the Soviet economy, Gorbachev now had a new rival.
Boris Yeltsin was elected leader of the Russian Republic within the Soviet Union.
Mikhail Gorbachev had trouble sharing power with Yeltsin.
In August 1991, while he was on vacation with his family in Crimea, the very hard-line communists and the army, who feared the total collapse of the Soviet Union, attempted a coup against him.
Prime Minister Pavlov, who was tasked by Gorbachev to balance his grievances over power-sharing with Yeltsin, was leading the coup attempt.
Gorbachev was held in a residential prison in the Crimea by the putschists.
Thanks to Yeltsin’s resistance, the coup attempt did not succeed. Boris Yeltsin became a hero in the eyes of the Russian people with his attitude towards the coup.
The image of Gorbachev, who was rumored to be collaborating with the putschists, was irreparably damaged.
The 11 states that broke away from the Soviet Union came together on December 8, 1991 and formed the Commonwealth of Independent States. This event prepared the end of Gorbachev.
Forced to resign on December 25, 1991, Gorbachev transferred all his powers to Boris Yeltsin and left the political scene. With Gorbachev’s resignation, the Soviet Union completely disintegrated.
Mihail Gorbachev’s efforts to return to politics by founding new parties in the following years were always fruitless.
Gorbachev, who frequently gave speeches in think tanks, came to the fore from time to time with his harsh criticisms of Russian State Leader Vladimir Putin.
Although Gorbachev Putin, he reinforced Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014.
Gorbachev, known by the nickname Gorby, undoubtedly earned a very special place in Russian history.